and 40 more had been converted. Hughes, The History of the Society
of Jesus, Text, 1: 347.
(39) Newman, Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate, 197-199,
(40) On mateships, see Menard and Carr, "The Lords Baltimore"
in Quinn, ed., Early Maryland in a Wider World, 207.
(41) Newman, Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate, 178-79, 321-
322; Wills 1: 257-259, ms. Hall of Records, Annapolis.
(42) In 1648 Lord Baltimore issued conditions of plantation in
which for the first time he offered servants "out of their time" rights
to 50 acres. In 1649 he revoked these conditions but he had reinstated
service rights at least by late 1656. All conditions of plantations that
survive in the records are collected in John Kilty, The Land-Holder's
Assistant and Land-Office Guide (Baltimore, Md., 1808). For the
above, see 40, 45-46, 55. The patent records show grants for service
rights from 1648 on, despite the apparent revocation, 1649-1656. It
seems likely that in practice they were never revoked. See, for exam-
ple, Patent Liber AB&H: 165, 167, 177, ms., Hall of Records,
(43) On opportunity for servants in the early days of settlement see
Menard and Carr, "The Lords Baltimore" in Quinn, ed., Early Mary-
land in a Wider World, 200-209; Russell R. Menard, "From Servant
to Freeholder: Status Mobility and Property Accumulation in Seven-
teenth-Century Maryland," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., 30
(44) Lord Baltimore to Sir Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford,
quoted in J. Thomas Scharf, History of Maryland from the Earliest
Period to the Present Day, 3 v. (Baltimore, Md., 1879) 1: 68; ibid., 66;
Cecil the Lord Baltimore's Declaration to the Lords, Calvert Papers,
Number One, 228; Maryland Historical Magazine 1 (1906): 352-353.
On the willingness of Catholics to take the oath of allegiance (as op-
posed to the oath of supremacy), see Menard and Carr, "The Lords
Baltimore" in Quinn, ed., Early Maryland in a Wider World, 212, fn.
1. If the crew also swore the oath, the minimum range of colonists
drops to a low of 84 and a high of 101. This number is too small. The
records indicate at least 119, although only 89 have been positively
(45) Quotes are from Father White's "A Briefe Relation of the Voy-
age unto Maryland" in Hall, ed., Narratives of Early Maryland, 30.
On various estimates for the tonnage of the Ark, see ibid. (400 tons);
A Relation of Maryland in Hall ed., Narratives of Early Maryland,
70-71 (300 tons); Scharf, History of Maryland, 1: 66 (350 tons). On
the meaning of ship tonnage, see Ralph Davis, The Rise of the English
Shipping Industry in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (New-