lic, and as such, accountable for their conduct; wherefore,
whenever the ends of government are perverted, and public
liberty manifestly endangered, and all other means of redress
are ineffectual, the people may, and of right ought to reform
the old or establish a new government. The doctrine of non-
resistance against arbitrary power and oppression is absurd,
slavish and destructive of the good and happiness of man-
Art. 7.. That the right of the people to participate in the
Legislature is the best security of liberty, and the foundation
of all free government; for this purpose elections ought to be
free and frequent, and every free white male citizen having
the qualifications prescribed by the Constitution, ought to
have the right of suffrage.
Art. 8. That the Legislative, Executive and Judicial pow-
ers of government ought to be forever separate and distinct
from each other, and no person exercising the. functions of one
of said departments shall assume or discharge the duties of
Art. 9. That no power of suspending laws or the execution
of laws, unless by or derived from the Legislature, ought to be
exercised or allowed.
Art. 10. That freedom of speech and debate, or proceedings
in the Legislature, ought not to be impeached in any Court of
Art. 11. That Annapolis be the place for the meeting of
the Legislature, and the Legislature ought not be convened
or held at any other place but from evident necessity.
Art. 12, That for the redress of grievances, and for amend-
ing, strengthening and preserving the laws, the Legislature
ought to be frequently convened.
Art. 13. That every man hath a right to petition the
Legislature for the redress of grievances, in a peaceable and
Art. 14. That no aid, charge, tax, burthen or fees, ought
to be rated or levied under any pretence, without the consent
of the Legislature.
Art. 15. That the levying of taxes by the poll is grievous
and oppressive, and ought to be prohibited; that paupers
ought not to be assessed for the support of the Government, but
every other person in the State or person holding property
therein, ought to contribute his proportion of public taxes,
for the support of Government, according to his actual worth