worth in real or personal property within this state; yet fines,
duties or taxes, may properly and justly be imposed or laid
with a political view for the good government and benefit of the
14. That sanguinary laws ought to be avoided, as far as is
consistent with the safety of the state; and no law to inflict
cruel and unusual pains and penalties ought to be made, in any
case, or at any time hereafter.
15. That retrospective laws, punishing facts committed before
the existence of such laws, and by them only declared crimi-
nal, are oppressive, unjust and incompatible with liberty; where-
fore no ex post facto law ought to be made.
16. That no law to attaint particular persons of treason or
felony, ought to be made in any case or at any time hereafter.
17. That every free man, for any injury don6, to him in his
person, or property, ought to have remedy by the course of the
law of the land, and ought to have justice and right, freely
without sale, fully without any denial, and speedily without
delay, according to the law of the land.
18. That the trial of facts where they arise, is one of the
greatest securities of the lives, liberties, and estate of the people.
19. That in all criminal prosecutions, every man hath a right
to be informed of the accusation against him; to have a copy of
the indictment, or charge, in due time, (if required, ) to prepare
for his defence; to be allowed counsel; to be confronted with
the witnesses against him; to have process for his witnesses; to
examine the witnesses for and against him on oath, and to a
speedy trial by an impartial jury, without whose unanimous
consent he ought not to be found guilty.
20. That no man ought to be compelled to give evidence
against himself in a court of common law, or in any other court,
but in such cases as have been usually practised in this state,
or may hereafter be directed by the legislature.
21. That no freeman ought to be taken or imprisoned, or dis-
seized of his freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed, or
exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life,
liberty or property, but by the judgment of his peers, or by the
law of the land.
22. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor exces-
sive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted
by the courts of law.
23. That all warrants without oath, or affirmation, to search
suspected places, or to seize any person, or property, are gre-
vions and oppressive; and all general warrants to search sus-
pected places, or to apprehend suspected person?, without
naming or describing the place, or the person in special, are
illegal and ought not to be granted,